Universal Quantifier ∀

A formula that uses a universal quantifier expresses that a particular property holds for all possibles values. For example, (A. x (= (+ x (5)) (+ (5) x))) means that (= (+ x (5)) (+ (5) x)) is true for all possible values of x. Universal quantifiers are part of Predicate Calculus.


The properties of the universal quantifier are derived directly from the the axioms of predicate calculus.

Predicate calculus

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